Diet Guide for Cardiovascular Diseases Patients

Like elsewhere in the world, cardiovascular diseases stand among the most significant health problems of our country. Coronary heart diseases rank first among the causes of death in adult population. The risk increases as of age 35 and threatens men with a higher rate. Cardiac patients can make a positive contribution to their health by redesigning their diet and eating habits.
Flowing freely through the veins/arteries, the blood conveys food and oxygen to the organs and tissues. When the inner part of artery/vein has a healthy structure, it is muscular and smooth. It is flexible enough to endure changes -especially increases- in the blood pressure and other conditions.
The veins get worn and damaged due to various reasons: high cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, eating habits, genetic factors, lifestyle and other environmental effects. In the damaged part, a layer -called plaque- is generated due to the accumulation of cholesterol, fat, calcium, macrophages and dead blood cells. These plaques diminish the flexibility of the vein, narrowing the path for the blood and eventually blocking the flow. A clot particle may sometimes split from the artery wall, making its way towards an artery connected to the heart or to a smaller vein and block it. This leads to a chest pain, due to the lack of sufficient oxygen transfer to the heart muscle, which may result a heart attack.
The occlusion due to the hardening of the arteries over time is called atherosclerosis. The rise in the serum cholesterol level causes atherosclerosis, which is a silent disease.

WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL?

Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that it needed in small amounts for certain functions of the body. A smaller portion of the cholesterol in the body is taken in through nutrition while it is predominantly produced in the liver. Maintaining a normal cholesterol level within the blood is necessary for the functioning of the body.

WHY IS CHOLESTEROL IMPORTANT?

High level of cholesterol in the blood increases the cardiovascular disease risk. The higher the cholesterol level, the higher the risk of cardiac problems.

WHAT ARE THE “GOOD CHOLESTEROL” (HDL) & “BAD CHOLESTEROL” (LDL)?

The cholesterol produced in the liver is carried to the cells and back to liver. This transfer is made by two types of lipoproteins, namely HDL, also known as the good cholesterol and LDL, the bad cholesterol.
LDL, almost 50% of which is cholesterol, carries the cholesterol from the liver to the other cells. When LDL cholesterol is high within the blood, it adheres to the inner walls of the arteries, generating plaques. With the addition of substances other than cholesterol, these plaques grow, making up clots that block the flow. This disease, very common in our age, is called atherosclerosis. The blockage in the cardiac arteries cause heart attack, whereas the blockage of the cranial arteries result in stroke.
HDL, on the other hand, consists of less cholesterol and carries cholesterol from to blood back to liver. Researches show that people with high HDL are less likely to have heart diseases. Smoking and being overweight decrease the good cholesterol, while exercising regularly increases it.
HDL, the good cholesterols, hinders the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries.

WHAT ARE TRIGLYCERIDES?

Triglyceride is the lipid form as found in nature. Just like cholesterol, it is both produced in the body and taken through nutrition. Since the correlation between the cholesterol level in the blood and cardiac diseases is more evident, triglyceride is targeted as the second enemy. However, high triglyceride level in blood is more likely to cause cardias diseases.

WHAT IS THE NORMAL CHOLESTEROL LEVEL?

Total Cholesterol LDL HDL Triglyceride
Normal < 200 mg/dl <130 mg/dl >40 mg/dl <150 mg/dl
Upper limit 200-240 mg/dl 130-159 mg/dl 150-199 mg/dl
High >240 mg/dl >160 mg/dl >60 mg/dl 200-499 mg/dl

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES RISK FACTORS

  • Age
  • High-fat and cholesterol diet
  • Being overweight
  • Family history (having family members with cardiac problems)
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Excessive stress
  • Being inactive
If people with these risk factors also have high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, the cardiovascular disease risk increases sharply.

DOES DECREASING THE BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVEL LOWER THE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK?

Studies have clearly shown that decreasing the cholesterol level (by changing the diet or taking medication) lowers the disease risk in people with no cardiac problems and elongates the lifespan in patients with cardiovascular disease.

HOW IMPORTANT IS DIET FOR PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES?

There is a direct correlation between the excessive consumption of high-cholesterol foods (and high blood cholesterol) and cardiac diseases. Researches show that the type and amount of the fat intake may increase the cardiac disease risk, since it can increase the oxidation of the bad cholesterol with the blood.

WHICH FAT TYPES ARE THERE IN THE FOODS AND HOW DO THEY AFFECT THE CHOLESTEROL LEVEL?

In our body and foods, fats are found in two forms: saturated and unsaturated. While lard consists of saturated fats, vegetable oils mostly contain unsaturated fats. Saturated fats are found mainly in animal fats.
Foods that contain saturated fats the most are: Lamb, veal, dairy made of fatty milk, butter and thick margarine. Saturated fats stand among the top reasons of elevated blood cholesterol.
Oils, on the other hand, contain unsaturated fatty acids. Sunflower seed oil, corn germ oil, soy oil and hazelnut oil consist monounsaturated fat acids, whereas olive oil contains polyunsaturated fat acids. Monounsaturated fats regulate the blood cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fats contribute in decreasing the bad cholesterol level in the blood.

IN WHAT RATE DOES A HEALTHY DIET INCLUDE FATS?

30% of the daily calorie need must be met from fats. There should be equal amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Decreasing the saturated fat intake and replacing it with unsaturated, and particularly polyunsaturated fats, would help control the blood cholesterol level.

Suggestions

  • Try not to gain weight. Increased weight is a cholesterol elevating factor.
  • Decrease the total fat consumption. Avoid consuming foods that mostly contain saturated fats.
  • Try to grill, boil or steam the food instead of frying.
  • Prefer pulpy foods.
  • Eat in small amounts and frequently, increase the number of meals per day.
  • Take the daily sweet and sweetened food consumption under control.
  • Limit the salt amount used while cooking and on the table. Try to stay away from salty foods.
  • Try not to take alcohol or smoke. Or at least try to quit; start with minimizing the consumption.
  • When employed together, a healthy diet and exercising regularly, creates a remarkably positive result.
  • Have check-up tests regularly: Blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Profesör doktor Mustafa Güden 1965 yılında Kayseri’de doğdu. Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesinin ardından 1989 yılında İstanbul Üniversitesi Çapa Tıp Fakültesini bitirdi. Kalp Damar Cerrahisi uzmanlığını İstanbul Üniversitesi Kardiyoloji Enstitüsünden aldıktan sonra Şişli Florence Nightingale Hastanesinde 10 sene çalıştı. devamı

Açık Kalp Ameliyatı Sonrası Evde Bakım

Taburculuk sonrası doktorunuzun size ağızdan alacağınız ilaçları reçete edecektir. Aşağıdaki ilaçlardan herhangi birileri tedaviniz için gerekli olabilir:
• Kan sulandırıcı: Aspirin, Coumadin, vb. türevi olan bu ilaç, kanın pıhtılaşmasını önleyecektir.
• Kalp ilaçları: Kalbinizi güçlendirecek ve kalp hızınızı düzenleyeceklerdir.
• Dışkı yumuşatıcılar: Bağırsak hareketlerinizin normale dönmesini kolaylaştırarak, kabız olmanızı önleyecektir.
• Diüretik ilaçlar (idrar söktürücüler): İdrarla daha fazla sıvı atmanızı sağlayarak, vücudunuzda fazla sıvı birikimi ve ödem oluşmasını önleyeceklerdir. devam

Comments are closed.